History of St Buryan

From William Hals' History of Cornwall published in 1750, written in the 1730s.

Burian is situated at the western extremity of the county, having two adjoining parishes, Sennen and S. Levan annexed; the former of which includes the Land’s End. In Domesday tax this district was rated by the name of Beriand, for Berian or Bury-an; synonymous words, signifying a cemetery or burying place for human creatures; that is to say, that place which is now called the churchyard, which was an inclosure, as in most other places, converted to that use before and since the church was erected therein. This instance of a Domesday Roll, wherein this district is named Beri-an, overthrows the story of Camben’s conjecture, that the name thereof was derived from one S. Buryana, an Irishwoman that was the tutelar guardian of this church, whereas the appellation of Saint, at that time was not given to but one church in Cornwall.

This church was founded and endowed by King Athelstan, about the year 930, after such time as he had conquered the Scilly Islands, as also the county of Devon; and made Cornwall tributary to his sceptre. To which church he gave lands and tithes of a considerable value for ever, himself becoming the first patron thereof, as his successors the kings of England have been ever since: for which reason it is still called the royal rectory, or regal rectory, and the royal or regal peculiar. Signifying thereby that this is the church or chapel pertaining to the king, or immediately under the jurisdiction of him as the supreme ordinary, from whom there is no appeal, whereas other peculiars, though exempt from the visitation or jurisdiction of the diocesan bishop within whose see they stand, yet are always subject to the provincial archbishops of Canterbury and York, or other persons.

This church or college consisted of canons Augustines, or regular priests, and three prebendaries, who enjoyed the revenues thereof in common, but might not marry; and the lord chancellors of England of old visited this peculiar, which extended only over the parishes of Burian, Sennen, and S. Levan, for the King.

One of the Popes of Rome, about the time of Edward III. obtruded upon this church, the canons and prebends thereof, a dean to be an inspector and overseer over them: whom he nominated to be the bishop cf Exon for the time being, who for some time visited this church as its governor, as the lord chancellor did before; which encroachment of the pope being observed by Edward III., as appears from the register of the writs, 8 Edward III. This usurpation of the pope was taken away.

Boscawen-ros in this parish, compounded of Bocawen-ros, is a name given and taken from the natural circumstances of the place, and signifies in Cornish-British “a valley notable for skeawe or scawen” trees. And indeed this place, being naked and exposed to the sea on the cliffs of the British Channel, anciently as it seems, produced no other trees than scawen, (i.e. elder,) proper to that part of the country; neither, I think, is there any other trees at present that grow there. From this place was transnominated an Irish gentleman that settled here either by marriage or purchase, in the latter end of the reign of Edward IV., who discontinued his paternal name and styled himself John de Boscawen, which latter name hath been the hereditary name of his posterity ever since: who from hence transplanted their dwellings to Tregameer in St. Columb Major, and Trevallock in Creed or S. Stephens; and from thence by marriage with the daughter and heir of Tregothnan by Lawrence Boscawen, gentleman, attorney-at-law, temp. Henry VII., who died 1567, and lieth buried in the north aisle of S. Michael Penkivell Church, as is testified by a brass inscription on his gravestone, there lately extant, upon which, on a lead escutcheon, was engraved his paternal coat armour, viz., in a field vert a bull passant argent, armed or; on a chief ermine, a rose gules; crest, a boar argent,—out of a supposed allusion to their present name, as if it had signified a white bull and a rose. In the reign of James I. his posterity discontinued this bearing, and gave only for their arms, ermine, a rose; which, I take it, also is the hereditary coat armour of Beverley. Since the writing hereof this place is become the hereditary honorary title of Hugh Lord Boscawen, Baron of Boscawen-rose, and Viscount of Falmouth.

Upon Boscawen downs, some of which was lately the lands of Mr. Christopher Davis, stands a monument called Dance Meyns, that is to say the dance stones; which are nineteen pyramidal stones about six foot high above ground, set in a round circle, distant from each other about twelve feet, having in the centre one pitched far bigger than the rest; a 1ittle to the north of those are two admirable great stones in perpendicular manner, much bigger than the rest, those are vulgarly called the Pipers. But since it is not probable that those stones were either dancers or pipers, I take the common appellation dance meyns, only by the dialect to be a corruption of dans meyns, i.e. men’s stones; that is to say stones set up in memory of once so many famous men that, lived in those parts, or lie interred there, before the sixth century. Mr. Davis aforesaid informed me, that contiguous with those dans meynes, he caused not long since divers barrows of earth to be carried abroad in order to manure his lands, in several of which barrows he found two or three urns or earthen pots, sound and firm, having in them pieces of bones, and ashes.

About twenty years past, the sexton of this parish sinking a grave four feet deep in the ground, he met with a 1arge flat marble or other stone, which he lifted up out of the earth, on which was cut or engraved a long plain cross, surmounted on four grieces or steps; on the border of this stone, round the said cross was an inscription in Norman-French, which soundeth thus in English:—“Clarice, the wife of Geffery de Bolleit, lies here; whosever shall pray for her soul shall have ten days pardon. Amen.” There is a place still extant in this parish called Bolait, or Bolaith, i.e. a place of slaying or killing cows, kine, or cattle; otherwise it may be interpreted cow’s milk, or a place notable for the same.

Trove, in this parish, is in Cornish and Armorick, & dent, pit, a cavern, or valley: a name doubtless taken from the natural and artificial circumstances, of the place, situate between two hills, on a cavern; also Trewoofe, that is to say the town or dwelling of ob-yarn, such as sail spinsters make, in order to be woof, or woven cross the warp in pieces of cloth, stuff, or serges, from whence was denominated a family of gentlemen named Trewoofe; who out of a mistaken etymology of their name, (as many others in Cornwall,) gave for their arms, in a field-three wolves’ heads; whereas, try-bleith, try-bleit, is three wolves in Cornish; the heiress of which family was married to Leveale, temp. Henry VIII. of the old Norman race, whose posterity flourished here in good fame for several descents, till for want of issue male, Lewis Leveale’s daughter and heir, by Cooke of Tregassa, carried this place, together with herself in marriage, to Mr. Uspar or Vospar, temp. Chas. I, who had issue Arthur Vosper: his son and heir, who married Eyans, of Eyanston in Oxfordshire, who had issue by her two daughters, married to Mr. Marke of Woodhill, and Mr. Dennis of Liskeard. This last gentleman, Mr. Vosper, bathing himself in the river Isis in Oxfordshire, with other young men, was there unfortunately drowned, about the year 1679. The name Vosper or Vospeur, in British-Cornish, signifies a pure or immaculate maid or virgin. The arms of Leveale were three calves or veals.

In the middle of this barton of Trove, on the top of n hill, is still extant the downfalls of a castle or treble intrenchment called [__________], in the midst of which is a hole leading to a vault under ground. How far it extends no man now living can tell, by reason of the damps or thick vapours that are in it; for as soon as you go an arrow flight in it on less, your candles will go out, or extinguish of themselves, for want of air. For what end or use this vault was made is uncertain, though it is probable it was an arsenal or store-house for laying up arms, amunition, corn, and provision for the soldiers of the castle wherein it stands, in the wars between Charles I. and his Parliament. Divers of the royal party, pursued in the West by the Parliament troops under Sir Thomas Fairfax, were privately conveyed into this vault as far as they could proceed with safety, where Mr. Leveale fed and secured them till they found opportunity to make their escape to the king’s friends and party.

Pentre, otherwise Pendrea, in this parish, i.e. the head town, or town at the head of some other, denominated a family of gentlemen from thence called Pendre, who gave for their arms, argent, on a bend gules and sable, three fleurs-de-lis of the field. John Pendre, the last of this tribe, temp. Henry VI. leaving only two daughters that became his heirs, who were married to Bonython of Carclew, and Noy. To Noy’s share fell this tenement of Pendrea, which was the dwelling of him and his posterity for several descents; and here was born, as I was informed, William Noy, the Attorney-general to Charles I., who designed to have built a notable house here but Was prevented by death, having before brought great quantities of materials to this place in order thereto; his grandson, William Noy, Esq., sold this place and several others to my very kind friend Christopher Davis, gent., now in possession thereof.

Burnewall, in this parish, i.e. the walled well or well-pit of waters, so called from some such place on the lands thereof, was also formerly the lands of the said William Noy, who sold it to the said Mr. Davis, who conveyed it to his nephew Henry Davis on his marriage with Hester, daughter of Humphrey Noy, gent. younger brother of the said William Noy, now in possession thereof, and hath issue. The arms of Davis are, argent, a chevron sable between three mullets gules, which also is the coat armour of Davey of Creedy, in Devon.

Leah, also Lahe, i.e. lawe, or leh, a place or dwelling, is the seat of Oliver Ustick, gent. (i.e.[)] Nightingale; otherwise, Eus-teck is fair nightingale,) that married Rosorow of Penryn.

From Als, now Alse, and Alsce, viz. lands towards or upon the sea-coast, as this whole parish and its members are situate, was denominated John de Als, or from Bar-Als-ton in Devon, temp. Henry I. and king Stephen, ancestor of the De Alses, formerly of Lelant, now Halses; which place was heretofore the voke lands of a considerable manor, now dismembered and in the possession of Trevanion and others. This family, in Edward III.’s days, wrote their surname De Als, now Halse.

From a Complete Parochial History of the County of Cornwall, J Polsue 1868

BURIAN, or Buryan is in the deanery and hundred of Penwith, in the Land’s End district. It is bounded on the north by the parishes of Sancreed and S. Just; on the east by Paul; on the south by the sea; and on the west by S. Levan and Sennen. The parish measures 6,964 acres, of which 5,465 acres are subject to tithes, namely, arable 1,296A.; pasture or meadow 2589A.; marsh, furze, and heath 1,570A.; and woodland 10A. The living is a rectory in the gift of the Duke of Cornwall; and the tithes are commuted at £570.

The church, which was dedicated to S. Buriana, August 26, 1238, consists of a chancel nave and north and south aisles; the arcades are of six four-centred pointed arches of fine granite. The rood stairs are in the south wall, open and complete. Portions of the screen remaining comprising some of the lower panels, and about two thirds of the cornice the latter most elabourately carved, painted, and gilded. The scenes represented are chiefly hunting, warfare between animals and birds, and grotesque heads. On one portion of the cornice are the arms of Godolphin, with the crest on one side. Two bench ends alone remain. In 1814 the church underwent repairs, when the benches and screen suffered the extreme of churchwarden vandalism. It is said that some carved figures belonging to the screen, were to be seen as chimney ornaments in the houses of some of the parishioners, and that bench ends and panels were used as ordinary wood about outhouses. The font is also of fine granite (from Ludgvan), and has on its bowl angels supporting shields, with a Latin and Maltese cross. It has no basement. Adjoining the screen, and within the chancel, are four oak miserere stalls, placed two on each side of the entrance from the nave to the chancel. It is said they were destined for the dean, for the prebendary of Respernell, for the prebendary of Trithing, and for the holder of the ‘Prebenda Parva.’ It has been suggested that when there was a choir one of the stalls might have been for the precentor. Each stall has a moveable seat; when turned up, a rounded ledge is brought forward, which served as a sort of occasional rest for the occupant.

On a piece of an old seat are carved the initials T. G. with the date, 1640.
The chancel window does not retain its original tracery. A smaller square-headed south window to the chancel is blocked, In the north wall a large archway has been built up, and in connection with it immediately under the window of the north aisle there were three stone steps, evidently constructed with the original wall. Their position may still be traced.

The porch is surmounted with battlements, has double buttresses at the angles finished with crocketted pinnacles, and a bold string-course. Within are stone benches on each side, and a mutilated stoup. Over the church door is a bracket.

The tower arch is lofty, and has bold mouldings. Over the tower doorway is the monogram I.H.S., and above this is a good Perpendicular window.

The tower, which is built of wrought granite, is of four stages, is 90 feet high, and has double buttressess at each angle. The newel is octagonal and finishes with a battlemented turret, rising to the height of the pinnacles. There are three bells. The largest is inscribed, “Virginis egegiæ vocor campana Mariæ,” i.e. “I am called the bell of the glorious Virgin Mary;” and dated 1738. The bell has a flaw or crack running through it, for which tradition thus accounts. It was cast in the church village, and before it was hardened, a man jumped from a hedge near the mould, which being disturbed by the shake, rendered the bell imperfect. The next bell has for its legend, “Vocem ego do vobis; vos date verba Deo.” i.e. “I give to you a voice; give ye words to God.” 1638. The third has the names of the churchwardens,—”Mr. Richard Davies, Sampson Hutches—wardens, 1681. Within the tower on the pavement is the ancient tomb before spoken of. The inscription is in Norman-French, and runs as follows:—

+ Clarice: la: femme: Cheffrei: de Bolleit: git: ici: Deu: de: lalme: eit: merce: Ke: pur: lealme: punt: di: ior: de: pardun: averund. “Clarice the wife of Geoffry de Bolleit lies here, God of her soul have mercy; who pray for her soul shall have ten days’ pardon.”
The stone is seven feet long, and has a floriated cross carved in relief on the upper part.

The shape is the same as those commonly called priests’ tombs. The family of Bolleit resided on an estate of the same name in the parish.

Against the tower wall stands another monument thus inscribed:—

Here lyes the body of Arthur Levelis of Trewoof in this parish, who departed this life the 2nd day of May, Anno. Dom. 1671.
This worthy Family hath Flourished Here,?Since William’s Conquest full Six Hundred year;?And Longer much it might But that the Blest?Must spend a Seavenths in a Blessed Rest:?But yet this Gentleman, Last of his Name,?Hath by his Vertues Eterniz’d the same?Much more than Children could, or Bookes for Love?Records it Here in Hearts, in Life Above.

In the church :—

The memory of the just is blessed. On the north side of this church are deposited, in sure & certain hope of a joyful resurrection to eternal life, the earthly remains of the Rev. Thomas Wills, A.B. son of Mr. Thos. Wills, late of S. Issey, in this county. During the period of thirty-eight years he was an able, faithful, zealous, laborious, & successful minister of the glorious gospel of Christ, in comparison of whom he counted all things as loss & dung. While he described the personal glories & official character of the Redeemer as the true God & eternal life, & exhibited Him as the Alpha & Omega, in the great work of salvation, finished for lost sinners who came unto Him, his heart often glowed with fervent gratitude & his lips were endued with sacred eloquence. He was born July the 26th, 1740, & died May the 12th, 1802; ætat 62. In the year 1774 he married Selina-Margaretta Wheler, third daughter of the Rev. Granville Wheler and the Rt. Honle. Lady Catherine Wheler, who survived him, & erected this memorial of a most tender friendship, which, as it was founded on Christian principles death was unable to dissolve & divine goodness will perpetuate in a state of mutual & consummate bliss.

Sacred to the memory of Selina-Margaretta Wills, widow of the Reverend Thomas Wills, and daughter of the Reverend Granville and the Lady Catharine Wheler. She departed this life April the 3rd, 1814; aged 84. Rev, xiv. 13.

In the churchyard are the following curious epitaphs:—

Our life is but a Winter’s day;?Some only Breakfast and away;?Others to Dinner stay and are Full fed;?The oldest only Sups and goes to Bed.?Large is his Debt, who lingers out the Day:?Who goes the soonest has the least to pay.

Sleep Here A While? Thou Dearest part of Me;?   In Little Time?I’ll Come and Sleep With Thee,

Near the church porch, on the right hand side of the path, is an ancient cross raised on five steps. Another cross stands without the churchyard, and there is a tradition that the burying ground at one time surrounded it.

On the estate of Boslivan are some remains of an ancient building, to this day called the sanctuary. It appears to have been much larger than the other ancient chapels of the county. The remains were almost totally destroyed by Shrubsall, governor of Pendennis under Cromwell. There is an ancient cross near this place.

In the taxation of Pope Nicholas IV, 1288-1291, is the following entry under S. Burian.
In Archidiaconatu Cornubie & Decanatu de Penwid.
Ecclesia S. Beriane taxatur ad £20 0 0 Decima £2 0 0
Prebenda David de Bodlegh in eadem 2 10 0 0 0 0
Prebenda Hugonis Splot in eadem 2 6 8 0 4 8
Prebenda Johannis Coci in eadem 0 15 0 0 1 6

A collegiate church is said to have been founded here so early as 930. In Domesday book reference is made to a college of Canons here. The establishment consisted of a dean and three prebendaries, who are said to have held it from the King by the service of saying a hundred masses and a hundred psalters for the souls of the king and his ancestors.

It appears that the establishment was well conducted for some time after the conquest, but was afterwards much neglected from the non-residence of the deans. Leland states, “Their longeth to S. Buryens a deane and a few prebendarys, that almost be nether ther.”

Much unpleasant feeling existed between the bishops of the diocese and the crown, respecting the control of the deanery. On the death of Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, Edward I. claiming it as a royal free chapel, gave Sir William de Hameldon, his chancellor, dean of York, and a great pluralist, this deanery. But the neglect of residence was objected to by Bishop Thomas de Bytton, (1292), and a suit in the king’s court was the consequence, which was not decided at the death of that prelate, September 25, 1307. His successor, Bishop Stapledon, offered equal opposition, when Queen Isabella appointed her chaplain, John Maunte, a foreigner, to the deanery. He was afterwards excommunicated by Bishop Grandisson, for neglect of duty, and disregarding his monitions. His supporters suffered with him, for on the fourth of November, 1328, the bishop being at S. Michael’s Mount, excommunicated with all form the principal delinquents, especially Richard Vivian, the most obnoxious of all. At his visitation on July 12, 1336 the bishop found the parishioners returned to a sense of their duty, and at their earnest supplication he absolved them from their censures, and preached to them from 1 Peter, ii. 25. To add to the bishop’s satisfaction, the dean, John de Maunte, on August 16, 1336, waited upon him at Bishop’s Court, Clyst, promised amendment in future, and took the oath of obedience to him and his successors in the see of Exeter.

But the contest, did not end here; within fifteen years Edward III. revived the claim of exemption. But eventually the strife terminated in favour of the stronger party, and to the last the dean received institution from the Duke of Cornwall as his ordinary, though the patronage had often been exercised by the sovereign, when the dukedom was vacant.

Of the deans, the only names recorded in the episcopal registers are the following—:

Arnold a prothonotary of Richard, King of the Romans, and Earl of Cornwall, admitted on the presentation of his royal patron, on Friday after the translation of S. Thomas, July, 1259. Two years after he was preferred to the living of Bradninch, Devon.

Stephen Haym, admitted May 26,12G9, under the same patron, He held several other benefices.

William de Hameldon, Patron, Edward I.

Ralph de Manton, 30 Edward I.

John de Maunte, or Medintû. Patron Isabella, queen of Edward II.

Matthew de Medentor, 9 Edward II.

Matthew Boileaux.

John de Hale, May 2, 11 Edward II.

Richard de Wolveston, Oct. 13, 23 Edward III.

John Saucy.

David Macguerd or Maynard, 27 Edward III.

Alan de Stokes, April 16, 4 Richard II.

John Boor, January 1, 17 Richard II.

Nicholas Slake, September 28, 18 Richard II.

William Lochard, February 24, 11 Henry IV.

Adam Moleyns, or Molyneoux, 1439, made bishop of Chichester, 1445.

Peter Stucle, 24 Henry VI.

Robert Knollys, February 20, l Edward IV.

To this list the following may be added:

Dr. Thomas Bagh, in 1535. He was living in 1553.

The following is from Veysey’s Valor, 1536.
Decanatus sive capella Regia de Beryan, unde Dominus Rex est fundator ubi Thomas Bagh est Decanus et Rector £58 8 2½ £0 0 0
Reotoria de Beryan 4 17 2½ 0 0 0
Prebenda ibidem de Trethyny, Johannes Byase 7 0 0 0 14 0
" de Respewell, Johannes Westcott 7 6 8 0 14 8
Parva Prebenda ibidem, Johannes Longe 2 0 0 0 4 0
Cantaria ibidem, Benedictus Phellype 5 0 0 0 10 0

The college shared in the general suppression, and the following pensions were paid, anno. 1553: to Thomas Bauge (Bagh) dean, £25 17 4; to William Woodward, £5; to Philip John, £4 10; to Lewis Jenkins, £2; to Robert Whitster, £2.

John Gayer and William Fairchild occur successively as incumbents towards the end of the reign of Elizabeth.

—— Murry was dean by the grant of James I, when Prince Henry appears to have successfully asserted his right of patronage.

Dr. Robert Creighton was dean in 1637. He was chaplain to Charles I., and II.

Dr John Weeks, 1645. He had been chaplain to Archbishop Laud, and held the deanery until his death.

Dr. Seth Ward. He was also bishop of Exeter, 1662, and it is said that he procured the deanery to be settled for ever on the see, by the king’s letters patent.

Dr. Anthony Sparrow succeeded in 1667.

Dr. Thomas Lamplugh in 1676. He leased the tithes of S. Burian, March 30, 1683, to Hugh Jones, Esq., of Penrose, and Francis Paynter, gent., of Boskenna, for three years. Rent £240, payable February 2.

Dr. Sir Jonathan Trelawny in 1688; on whose translation, in 1707, to Winchester, the deanery became separated from the see of Exeter.

John, Harris, clerk of the closet to the Princess of Wales, was dean August 11, 1717, when the present oval and ungraceful seal was provided. It presents a burlesque figure of Athelston, with the legend “sigil. pecvl: ivrisdic. dec. stæ. berianæ. 1717.”

Arthur Ashley Sykes, D.D., February, 1739, which he held till his death, November 23, 1756.

The Hon. Dr. Nicholas Boscawen, December 8, 20 George II, 1746, He died at Quendon, Essex, July 4, 1793.

Samuel Alford, October, 1793. He died August, 1799.

Henry Jenkins, D.D., August 9, 1799, by H.R.H. George, Prince of Wales, who established the right of the duchy as against the crown. He died December 21, 1817.

The Hon. and Rev. Fitz-roy Henry Richard Stanhope was preferred in 1817. At his demise in 1864, the deanery, which comprised the parishes of S. Burian, Sennen, and S. Levan ceased to exist, and those parishes became separate and independent rectories.

The Rev. Thomas Borlase Coulson, nephew to the late high sheriff, is the present rector of S. Burian, under whose superintendence a commodious and appropriate residence is now being built, 1866.

Besides the parish church, to which are attached well-attended national schools, there are chapels for the Methodists and Bible Christians in the churchtown.

Edward I, in 1302, granted to the dean and canons here a market on Saturdays, and a fair on the eve, day, and morrow of S. Martin. The parish feast is on May 29.

Pendrea, the birthplace and property of William Noye, the attorney-general, who died in 1634, was sold by his eldest son, Edward Noye, to Mr. Davies, of Burnuhall and by his grandson to Mr. Tonkin, whose representative, the Rev. Uriah Tonkin, still possesses it.

At Burnuhall, until recently was to be seen a curious performance of shell work, said to have been made by Mr. Davies’s daughters, strongly expressive of political feelings, then almost universal in the county. Charles II. is represented flying from his enemies, and one of them, in full pursuit, has the legend, “This is his heir! come let us kill him, that the inheritance may be our own!” whilst an angel exclaims from a cloud, in the same way, “Is it not written, Thou shalt do no murder?” The material of this work is found in great variety and beauty round the coast, and particularly at Porth Kernow. The last Mr. Davies of Burnuhall married Kegwin of Newlyn; he wasted the remains of a property which had been gradually diminishing in the hands of his predecessors; so that about the year 1750, Burnuhall and some other farms were sold to Admiral Boscawen, in whose family it still remains.

Boskenna is the property, and was for some time, the residence of the Paynter family. There is a tradition of its having been purchased of one whose family had long possessed it, but who had ultimately become the huntsman of a pack of hounds kept originally as his own.

Mr. Francis Paynter, of Boskenna, was distinguished for his wit and humour. He was either the sole or joint author of a poem ridiculing the then dean of Burian, called “The Consultation.” He practised as a lawyer at S. Columb, and married Miss Pender, of Penzance, by whom he had several sons. The exercise of wit is seldom associated with pecuniary gain; and Mr. Paynter has been heard to declare that “The Consultation” prevented his obtaining a valuable stewardship from the family of which the dean was a member.

Boskenna is now held of the Paynters by Charles Dacres Bevan, Esq., the judge of the district county court, who has considerably improved and beautified it.

The manor of Treviddren, still the property of the Vyvyan family, was their original seat, and continued to be their residence until they removed to Trelowarren. The fee of this manor appears to have been in the Champernownes in the reign of Edward III. Will. de Campo Arnulphi ten. 7. feod. et di. in Luduon trewedryn, Maien et Kellemeke. On this estate are the ruins of an old chapel, not far from the sea, generally known by the name of S. Loy. The ruins of another chapel are also on an estate called Vellanserga.

The barton of Trou or Trewoofe, which is pleasantly situated on the side of a woody hill overlooking a romantic valley terminated by Lamorna Cove, was anciently the seat of the family of Levelis, which became extinct at the death of Arthur Levelis in 1671. It is now divided into severalties, and is the property of the Paynters and others. There is a chalybeate spring on this estate.

Bolleit, formerly the residence of a family of that name, is now the property of Lord Falmouth and others. Tresidor or Treseder, which was formerly called a manor, belonged in ancient times to the family of Whalesborowe. For many years the barton belonged to the Tresilians, and was sold by their representative, Mrs. Jenkins, to Messrs. Weymouth and Permewan. Lord Chief Justice Tresilian is said to have been a native of this parish.

The manor of Eglosberrie, in this parish, according to Domesday, belonged to the Canons of S. Buryan, temp. Edward the Confessor.

The manor of Trevidor, described in Domesday as being held by Ulward under the Earl of Moriton, is the property of Sir R. R. Vyvyan, Bart. of Trelowarren.

With the market on Saturday, Edward I. granted two fairs, one on the festival of S. Burian and the other at that of S. Martin, in the winter.

A charity school was established in 1800, under the management of trustees, who were to provide a house for the master, and pay him eight guineas per year for teaching seven poor boys.

This parish was formerly the residence of several opulent and respectable families, namely, the Boscawens, Vyvyans, Trewoofs, Noyes, Pendres, Levelises, Tresilians, Tresiders, Davieses, and Paynters, all of whom are either extinct, or have removed their establishments into other parts of the county.

Among the chief landowners will be found Viscount Falmouth, S. Aubyn, Vyvyan, Tonkin, Scobell, Paynter, Pender, Permewan, and Coulson.

The villages, besides the churchtown, are Bolleit, Boscaven-oon, Boscavern-rose, Penberth Cove, Alsa, Rosemoddris, Selena, Treeve, Tregadgwith, Trelew, Tregurno, Trevorgans, Trevorrian, &c.

A station of the Trigonometrical Survey was placed in 1796 very near the church. The l attitude of the town is stated to be 50 degrees, 4 minutes, 32.8 seconds, and the longitude is 5 degrees, 36 minutes, 10.5 seconds, or in time 22 minutes, 24.7 seconds west of Greenwich.

The whole of this parish, with the exception of a small patch of slate, at Rosemoddris, rests on granite, and in some of the more elevated portions it is sterile and comparatively unproductive, but in general it is well cultivated and fertile. This difference in the granite soils of east and west Cornwall, may be in part explained by the gradual diminution of height towards the west, accompanied by a corresponding improvement in the climate; but in this part of the county more of the debris, especially of diluvial clay, is retained on the surface, that of the more elevated eastern ridges having been in a great measure swept away.

This circumstance must not however, be omitted. The granite of this parish exhibits more varieties than have been yet found in the eastern district. The slate in the cliffs at Rosemoddris is a felspar rock, and its contact with the granite is distinctly seen; where it may be observed at the eastern extremity traversed by numerous granite veins and the granite near this junction abounds in shorl.

Dr. Paris has remarked on the granite of this district, that it contains full 25 per cent. of felspar, which he says at once explains the rapidity of this stone’s decomposition, and the fertility which is so very unusual in granite countries; and that this granite in a state of decomposition, when it is provincially called growan, has actually been applied to some lands as a manure, and with the best effect.

Felspar is said to contain nearly a third part of its weight of alumine, about an eighth part of lime, and a twentieth of soda.



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